Endnotes for San Francisco Beginnings Article

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Introduction
Warren Kim, Koreans in America, 92–93.

A Tale of Two Places
1. Erika Lee and Judy Yung, Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America, 195–196.
2. Warren Kim, Koreans in America, 24.
3. Department of Commerce, Thirteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1910: Statistics for Hawaii, 9. Wayne Patterson, The Ilse: First-Generation Korean Immigrants in Hawaii, 1903–1973. Won-yong Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 1959 Korean edition]. Richard S. Kim, The Quest for Statehood: Korean Immigrant Nationalism and U.S. Sovereignty 1905–1945. Shinhan Minbo, December 13, 1917. Campbell Gibson and Kay Jung, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790–1990, For the United States, Regions, Divisions and States, Population Division Working Paper 56.
4. Patterson, The Ilse, 3–5.

Note About Independence Movement in America v. Korea
5. Kim, Koreans in America, 91.
6. Won-yong Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 2004 Korean edition], 233.

San Francisco Koreans: Who Were They?
7. Sonia Shinn Sunoo, Korean Picture Brides, 79.
8. Ibid., 103. Easurk Emsen Charr, The Golden Mountain: The Autobiography of a Korean Immigrant 1895–1960, Chapters 8 and 9.
9. Kim, The Quest for Statehood, 26.
10. Shinhan Minbo, December 13, 1917.

Laborers Who First Went to Hawaii
11. Kim, Koreans in America, 10–12. Patterson, The Ilse, 24–27.
12. Mary Paik Lee, Quiet Odyssey, 10–11.
13. Charr, The Golden Mountain, 128–129.
14. 63d Congress 1st Session Senate Document 173, Acts of Congress Treatises, Proclamations, Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, and Opinions of the Attorney General Relating to Noncontiguous Territory, Cuba and Santo Domingo, and to Military Affairs (including Executive Orders of the President March 4, 1898, to March 3, 1913), Compiled in the Bureau of the Insular Affairs War Department, 530. Lee and Yung, Angel Island, 116.

Small Group of Political Exiles Arriving Before 1910
15. Kim, Koreans in America, 3–4. According to Warren Kim, the 64 students included Kil-Jun Yu, Chi-Ho Yun, Kiusic Kimm, Kang Yi, Seng-Ku Shin, Yong-Man Pak, Syngman Rhee, Chang-Ho Ahn and 56 others young men.
16. Charr, The Golden Mountain, 149.
17. Ibid.
18. Kim, Koreans in America, 3.
19. Jaisohn.com (official website of Philip Jaisohn Memorial Foundation).
Kenneth Klein, “Philip Jaisohn, Second-Son Patriot,” in Shedding New Light on the Leaders of the Korean Independence Movement in the U.S., published for the International Academic Symposium in Commemoration of the Centennial Anniversary of the Establishment of Korean National Association, 14.
20. Klein, “Philip Jaisohn, Second-Son Patriot,” in Shedding New Light, 15–20.
21. Ahnchangho.org and Dosan.org (official sites of Dosan Ahn Chang Ho). Landing information confirmed by Ralph Ahn, son of Ahn Chang Ho, via email in 2018.
22. Charr, The Golden Mountain, 93–94.
23. Ahn Pyong-Uk, Dosan: The Man and His Thought, full text of which is provided in Ahnchangho.org. Charr, The Golden Mountain, 151. Edward T. Chang and Hannah Brown, “Pachappa Camp: The First Koreatown in the United States,” California History, Vol. 95, № 3, Fall 2018.
24. Ahn, Dosan: The Man and His Thought.
25. Passenger List, Pacific Mail Steamship Company, District and Port of San Francisco, Arrival April 22, 1903 (National Archives at Washington, D.C.).
26. Lee and Yung, Angel Island, 184–185. For a comprehensive biography of Rev. David Lee in Korean, see Suk-Chong Yu, David Lee’s Life and Writings 1878–1928.
27. Kim, Koreans in America, 60–62, 86–88. For more background in Korean, see also: Suh Dae Sook, “Pak, Yongman and His Revolution,” in Shedding New Light on the Leaders of the Korean Independence Movement in the U.S., published for the International Academic Symposium in Commemoration of the Centennial Anniversary of the Establishment of Korean National Association, 61–76, and Won-yong Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 1959 Korean edition], 193–195.
28. Bong-Youn Choy, Koreans in America, 83.
29. Ibid. 83–86. Kim, Koreans in America, 58–66 and 105–111. Kim, The Quest for Statehood, Ch. 4.

“Angel Island” Immigrants: Students, Activists, Family Members and Picture Brides
30. Lee and Yung, Angel Island, 177–178.
31. Ibid. 181.
32. Shinn Sunoo, Korean Picture Brides, 65.
33. Lee and Yung, Angel Island, 181.
34. Ibid., 187–188. File 12777/18–1 to 6 (National Archives at San Bruno).
35. Lee and Yung, Angel Island, 189–190.
36. Ibid., 191–192. Shinhan Minbo, January 7, 1915.
37. List or Manifest of Alien Passengers for the United States Immigration Officer at Port of Arrival, Arriving at Port of San Francisco, Oct. 1, 1917 (National Archives at San Bruno). Edwin Lee, a Bay Area resident, found out many years after his mother, Lee Hey Soo, passed away, that “Kim Bok So” was the alias that his mother used to travel to the U.S.
38. Ibid. Daisy Kim and her husband Harry (Hyung-soon) Kim, together with Charles Ho Kim, started Kim Brothers, a wholesale fruits and nursery business in Reedely, California, which became hugely successful in the 1930’s growing patented nectarine trees.
39. Record of Aliens Held for Special Inquiry, S.S. China, Arrived October 1, 1917 (National Archives at San Bruno).
40. Lee and Yung, Angel Island, 181. Kim, Koreans in America, 23–24.
41. Charr, The Golden Mountain, 154–156.
42. Charr, The Golden Mountain, 145.
43. Charr, The Golden Mountain, 148–149. Hyung June Moon, The Korean Immigrants in America, 188–189.

Organizing the Immigrant Community from San Francisco
44. Kim, Koreans in America, 51. Won-yong Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 1959 Korean edition], 87.
45. Kim, Koreans in America, 51. Won-yong Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 1959 Korean edition], 88.
46. Ibids.
47. Gongnip Shinbo, April 1906.
48. H.B. Johnson, “New Korean Mission,” Official Journal of the Pacific Mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1905, 19–20, as cited in A History of San Francisco Korean United Methodist Church written by Baek Guel Sung and Dr. Tongshik Ryu in celebration of the church’s centennial. SF-KUMC is still in existence. Having moved several times over its 100+ years of history, it is now located at 3030 Judah Street.
49. Baek Guel Sung and Dr. Tongshik Ryu, A History of San Francisco Korean United Methodist Church, 135.
50. Dae Do, December 1908.
51. Ibid.
52. Kim, Koreans in America, 52. Won-yong Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 1959 Korean edition], 89–90.
53. Won-yong Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 1959 Korean edition], 89–90.
54. Eckert, Lee, Lew, Robinson, and Wagner, Korea Old and New: A History, 241–247 and 256.
55. Shinhan Minbo, February 10, 1909. Kim, Koreans in America, 52–55. Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 1959 Korean edition], 100–103.
56. Kim, Koreans in America, 60.
57. Ibid.
58. Kim, Koreans in America, 53-55. Kim, The Quest for Statehood, 41–44.
59. Ibid.
60. Ibid.
61. Kim, Koreans in America, 60.
62. Kim, The Quest for Statehood, 42.
63. Ibid.
64. Ibid.
65. Kim, The Quest for Statehood, 27–32. Kim, Koreans in America, 78–84.
66. Ibids.
67. Ibids.
68. Kim, Koreans in America, 78–84. Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 2004 Korean edition], 238–240.
69. Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 2004 Korean edition], 240-244.
70. Ibid.
71. Kim, The Quest for Statehood, 36–41.
72. Ibid. Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 2004 Korean edition], 244–246.

Anti-Japanese Movement from San Francisco
73. Kim, Koreans in America, 73–75.
74. Ibid., 75–77. Kim, Chaemi Hanin Oshipnyun Sa [The 50 Year History of Koreans in America, 1959 Korean edition], 314–317. Guel Sung and Dr. Tongshik Ryu, A History of San Francisco Korean United Methodist Church, 53–56.
75. Kim, Koreans in America, 85–86.
76. Kim, The Quest for Statehood, 3–6.
77. “Little Brown Men Are Ordered Back: Korean Fruit Pickers, Mistaken for Japanese, Are Sent Away from Hemet,” San Francisco Chronicle, June 28, 1913.
78. “Koreans — Not Japanese,” Los Angeles Times, July 6, 1913.
79. “Hemet’s Korean Incident Closed by Bryan’s Order: Secretary is Informed Fruit Pickers Expelled from California Town Were Not Subjects of Japan,” San Francisco Call, July 2, 1913.
80. Kim, Koreans in America, 118–119.
81. Ibid.
82. Ibid., 120–121.
83. Kim, The Quest for Statehood, 68.
84. Ibid.
85. Min Pyong Yong, “President of Dong Ji Hui: Lee Bum Young,” 51.
86. Kim, The Quest for Statehood, 53–65.
87. Kim, Koreans in America, 122.
88. Ibid.
89. Ibid.
90. Ibid., 101–102.
91. Ibid., 105–111.
92. Ibid., 64–66.
93. Marn J. Cha, Koreans in Central California (1903–1957): A Study of Settlement and Transnational Politics, 48–49.
94. Ibid.

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